Cardiovascular Check-up
Cardiovascular diseases include numerous heart and blood vessel disorders, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, peripheral vascular disease, rheumatic heart disease, inborn heart diseases, and heart failure.
Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death, mainly in the form of heart attack and stroke. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are often life style related – for example, lack of physical activity, psychosocial stress, smoking, poor eating habits, obesity – and thus can be influenced.
In laboratory medicine, numerous parameters are available for reliably measuring the risk factors of various cardiovascular disease. Through a laboratory diagnostic for relevant micronutrients, deficiencies can be identified, making it possible to prescribe micronutrient supplements or a therapy with micronutrients. Orthomolecular medicine has an especially significant preventative and therapeutic potential for cardiovascular diseases.
The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are often life style related.

Laboratory parameters
The enzymes Gamma-GT, GOT, GPT are important clinical markers for assessing liver function.
Excessive Lipoprotein (a) concentration is considered an important independent risk factor in coronary heart disease and heart attack.
Homocysteine is a metabolite from amino acid metabolism. Excessive homocysteine concentration is considered an independent risk factor for arteriosclerosis and diseases of the venous system.
Chronic abnormally high cholesterol levels increase damage to blood vessel walls and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Excessive LDL is a risk factor, whereas HDL cholesterol has a protective function in the blood vessel walls.
The parameters Fibrinogen, Ferritin and hsCRP indicate a possible chronic inflammatory activity in the body, meaning a significant risk factor for heart attack, thrombosis and stroke.
Apolipoproteins are transporters of lipids in the blood. Apolipoprotein A is found in HDL (high density lipoproteins) and is considered beneficial as it protects from arteriosclerosis.
Apolipoprotein B is a component of LDL (low density lipoproteins). Excessive levels raise the risk of arteriosclerosis.
An excessive concentration of Uric Acid in the blood increases the risk of coronary heart disease.
High levels of Iron and Ferritin increase the risk of heart attack.

Cortisol is an important metabolic and stress hormone. Chronic high levels of cortisol enhance the development of hypertension and obesity.
Thyroid dysfunctions are among the most common hormonal -TSH, fT3, fT4- disturbances in humans. For example, insufficiency of the thyroid gland may result in low blood pressure, whereas hyper function often leads to arrhythmia of the heart.
BNP is a polypeptide hormone synthesized in the heart. The higher the level of BNP in the blood, the greater the deficiency in heart functionality.
Renin and aldosterone are hormones produced in the kidney and adrenal glands, respectively. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is important for regulating fluid balance and blood pressure.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (-sulfate) is an important precursor of female and male sex hormones and is the hormone with the highest concentration in blood. DHEAS levels decrease with age and as the ratio of cortisol to DHEAS increases, the risk factor for cardiovascular disease poten-tially increases.
The level of Creatinine in the blood is a good measure of the functionality of the kidneys.
D-Dimer develops with the breakdown of fibrin and allows a thrombosis risk assessment.

Arginine is needed to produce nitric oxide, which is essential for regulating blood vessel diameter and blood flow.
Carnitine is an important substance for the generation of energy for the heart muscle.
Cysteine regulates the diameter of blood vessels. It also has a beneficial effect on the concentration of cholesterol and lipoprotein (a).
Supplementary glutamine improves the tolerance of the heart muscle to ischemia. Chronic stress often leads to glutamine deficiency.
These so-called muscle-amino acids Isoleucine, Leucine and Valine are important for muscular metabolism, including the heart muscle, and can also be used as energy carriers.
Taurine is an important amino acid for the cardiovascular system. It stabilizes heart rhythm, improves heart muscle power, moderately decreases blood pressure, and thins the blood

Vitamin C and E are antioxidants, protecting the blood vessel walls and LDL particles against the damaging effect of free radicals. Vitamin E is the most important lipid soluble antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin C regenerates depleted vitamin E.
Vitamin B1 is of central importance for the metabolism of energy in the heart muscle.
The vitamins Vitamin B6, B12 and Folic Acid are required for the breakdown of homocysteine. Folic acid has a distinctive protective effect on the endothelial cells of the blood vessel walls. A low vitamin B6 concentration in the blood increases arteriosclerosis risk.
Recently published studies show a correlation of low Vitamin D concentration to heart failure and high blood pressure.
Coenzyme Q10 is of central importance for energy metabolism in the mitochondria, the power plant of the cell. An optimal availability of coenzyme Q10 improves the function of the heart muscle and has a protective effect against vascular diseases.

Electrolytes, Minerals, Heavy Metals
Deficiencies, especially of Potassium and Magnesium, lead to heart rhythm difficulties. Electrolytes essentially regulate the body fluid balance and therefore blood pressure.
Selenium is an antioxidant trace element of major importance, including for the cardiovascular system. An elevated concentration of selenium is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Excessive concentrations of heavy metals like Lead, Mercury and Aluminium are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
An example for risk reduction is supplementing nutrients according to individual blood levels as tested in our laboratory.
During the last 20 years, we have repeatedly observed that most of our clients have more or less an inadequate supply of micronutrients, even when multivitamin and mineral supplements are taken. We find an individualized laboratory micro-nutrient assessment and a targeted supplementary program offer the highest potential for long term health, especially in prevention and treatment of Cardiovascular diseases.